Study 5 Presentation 

The Story also talks about five movements that take part in God’s Story: 

Movement 1: The Story of the Garden (Genesis 1-11) 

Movement 2: The Story of Israel (Genesis 12 – Malachi) 

Movement 3: The Story of Jesus (Matthew – John) 

Movement 4: The Story of the Church (Acts – Jude) 

Movement 5: The Story of a New Garden (Revelation) 

New Commands and a New Covenant 

Yahweh continues to keep His Covenant that began with Abraham 

God demonstrated His power and authority over all other gods 

God calls His people to be different than the other nations 

Problem: Pattern Emerges 

1. Sin – continues to infect humanity; God’s people fail to be faithful 

2. Intercession – Moses intercedes for the people; a system of worship is established to intercede for the people; Jesus is both the perfect sacrifice and perfect intercessor 

3. Presence – God desires to be present with His people; God is present in the Tabernacle; God is present as Immanuel, God With Us; God continues to dwell in us through the Holy Spirit; Moses led the people to the Promised Land; Jesus leads us to the promise of Heaven 

Timeless Truth: Be Different – Set Apart – for God’s Purposes 

I. Background 

A. 1500 BC 

B. Move from Rephidim to Mt. Sinai 

C. Consecration 

i. Two days of preparation 

ii. Third day, gather at the mountain 

D. Holiness 

i. No one allowed on the mountain – penalty of death 

II. Mt. Sinai 

A. Presence of God 

i. Thunder, lightning, dark cloud 

ii. Smoke, earthquakes 

iii. Trumpet sound 

B. Moses, the Spokesman 

i. Moses allowed to approach God – others are allowed to accompany Moses at times but are only allowed to see God at a distance: Aaron, Joshua, Nadab and Abihu, elders of Israel; only Moses is allowed to draw close 

ii. People are afraid – ask Moses to speak to God for them 

III. Covenant 

A. Ten Commandments – summary 

B. Purpose: Holy Nation 

i. Teaches holiness – in order to be with a holy God, we need to be holy 

ii. Shows our sin – the Law was meant to be good, but it becomes an instrument of death as it shows us our sin (Romans 7) 

iii. Provides atonement for sin – intricate system of sacrifices 

IV. Ten Commandments 

A. Exodus 20 – Bible identifies the commands as the Ten Commandments 

B. Numbering Systems 

i. Hebrew 

ii. Traditional 

iii. Evangelical 

V. Moses, the Lawgiver 

A. Ten Commandments – two tablets 

B. Book of the Covenant – God gives additional regulations to Moses 

C. Speaker to the people – people respond with one voice; agree to the covenant 

D. Ratification 

i. Altar – Moses builds an altar 

ii. Book of the Covenant – read to the people 

iii. People agree – second assent to the Covenant 

iv. Blood – sacrifices made; blood sprinkled on the people – seals the deal 

E. Back up the mountain 

i. Six day wait for God 

ii. Seventh day, God speaks to Moses 

iii. Forty days – God gives additional regulations to Moses; regarding worship, regarding conduct, offerings, the Ark of the Covenant, the tabernacle and furnishings 

VI. Golden Calf 

A. People – approach Aaron, make us gods 

B. Golden calf – Egyptian deity, crafted by Aaron 

C. Festival to Yahweh – blending of Egyptian and Jewish worship; Aaron, his sons, the Jewish elders had just been in the presence of God and they condone this 

VII. Moses, the Leader

A. God sends Moses back down – God is willing to destroy the people and start over with Moses 

B. Moses intercedes – Your people, what will the Egyptians say, remember the covenant with Abraham 

C. Joshua – hears the noise on the way to the camp; noise of war? No, singing 

D. Approaches the camp 

i. Destroys the two tablets 

ii. Destroys the calf – causes people to drink water mixed with gold 

E. Aaron – poor excuse: people came to him; threw the gold into the fire and out came this golden calf 

VIII. Israelites Gone Wild 

A. Levites – rally to Moses; commanded to kill with their swords; presumably those who continued to act improperly but we are not clearly told this in the text 

B. 3000 men die – only men are mentioned as being put to death; judgment harsher on the men because they were to be the heads of their households; same number as those who were baptized at Pentecost 

C. Moses continues to intercede – goes back up to speak to God; intercedes for the people 

IX. Punishment 

A. Plague – forgiveness but also consequence 

B. Promise 

i. Promised land – God will bring them to the place He promised 

ii. Drive out the nations – angel sent ahead to drive out the nations living in the Promised Land 

X. Moses, the Judge 

A. Tent of Meeting – not the Tabernacle; tent was located outside of the camp; the Tabernacle was still being constructed and would be located in the center of the camp 

B. Disputes brought – Moses would consult with God to determine right and wrong; this was for the important cases; earlier, Jethro saw Moses dealing with all the cases and counseled Moses to get help with less important cases by appointing judges so Moses would only have to deal with the most important issues (Exodus 18); Israel was still learning who they were which meant that Moses had to adjudicate disputes that weren’t yet covered in the Law 

C. God’s presence – when God spoke to Moses access to the tent was blocked by the pillar of cloud 

D. Moses – travel back and forth between the tent and the camp 

E. Joshua – remained at the tent XI. Moses, the Servant A. Wisdom – Moses requests wisdom and help in leading the people 

i. God promises His presence B. Request – see God’s face; will be able to see God pass but not see God’s face 

C. Cleft or Cave – God puts Moses in a place where he can see God but is protected; tradition that it is the same place where Elijah will hear God as a still, small voice (1 Kings 19) 

XII. Aftermath 

A. New Tablets – Moses is instructed to cut two more tablets so God can rewrite the Ten Commandments on them

 i. Covenant – written so each party can have a copy; Israel is given both copies; ownership of the Covenant 

B. Veiled Face – Moses spends 40 more days on the mountain; comes down and his face is glowing with the radiance of God’s glory; wears a veil so people can look at him 

C. Craftsmen – enlisted to build the tabernacle and the furnishings 

D. God’s Presence – dwelt in the tabernacle unless it moved to lead the Israelites 

E. One Year – camp at Mt. Sinai 

i. Learn God’s Laws 

ii. Learn to be God’s People – God’s bride 

iii. Learn to worship – intricate system of sacrifices; ultimately points to Jesus 

XIII. Applications 

A. God set apart His people 

B. God desires to be with His people 

C. Our sin separates us from God 

D. God provided a way to restore the relationship 

E. The old Covenant failed but the new Covenant gives us life 

Jeremiah 31:31-34 (ESV) 

31 “Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah, 

32 not like the covenant that I made with their fathers on the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant that they broke, though I was their husband, declares the LORD. 

33 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the LORD: I will put my law within them, and I will write it on their hearts. And I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 

34 And no longer shall each one teach his neighbor and each his brother, saying, ‘Know the LORD,’ for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest, declares the LORD. For I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.” 

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